Predictores de riesgo cardiometabólico en adolescentes de Quito

  • Ramiro Estrella Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Central del Ecuador
  • Fernando Salazar Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Central del Ecuador
  • Yolanda Paredes Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Central del Ecuador
  • Marcia Racines Instituto de Investigaciones en Biomedicina, Universidad Central del Ecuador (INBIOMED-UCE).
Palabras clave: Obesidad, síndrome metabólico, predictores, riesgo cardiometabólico

Resumen

Introducción: Obesidad en la adolescencia se asocia con trastornos cardiometabólicos en la edad adulta. Es necesario contar con un índice de obesidad fácilmente aplicable para predecir riesgo cardiometabólico en adolescentes.

Objetivo: Comparar la utilidad de los índices radio Cintura/Talla (r-CT), circunferencia de cintura (CC) y el índice de masa corporal (IMC) para determinar obesidad y predecir riesgos cardiometabólicos en adolescentes.

Métodos: En este estudio trasversal, bajo criterios de la International Diabetes Federation (IDF) se determinó obesidad mediante tres índices, hipertensión arterial, hiperglicemia, hipertrigliceridemia y bajo HDL en 931 adolescentes mestizos ecuatorianos. La asociación de los índices de obesidad (r-CT, IMC y CC) con los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico se determinaron mediante radios de Odds ajustados y áreas bajo la curva (AUC, siglas en inglés) ROC (Característica Operativa del Receptor, siglas en inglés).

Resultados: El r-CT ≥0.5 determinó mayor porcentaje de obesidad (36.6%) respecto a CC (17.4%) e IMC (6.7%). IMC ≥95 percentil se asoció significativamente con los cuatro factores de riesgo cardiometabólico, mientras que CC y r-CT se asociaron con tres de los cuatro factores. Los tres índices de obesidad determinan la concurrencia de tres o más factores de riesgo cardiometabólico con alta sensibilidad y especificidad con un AUC mayor de 0.80.

Conclusiones: El IMC ≥ al percentil 95 es mejor predictor de riesgo cardiometabólico, pero no determina bien obesidad. El r-CT parece ser el indicador antropométrico más adecuado para detectar obesidad y predecir riesgo cardiometabólico en adolescentes mestizos debido a su fácil determinación y uso.

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Publicado
2019-12-02