Improving Listening Comprehension Using Practical Techniques in the English Third and Fourth Levels

  • María Augusta Heredia Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE
Palabras clave: Acquisition, Listening comprehension, poor listening skills

Resumen

Though listening is fundamental to the acquisition of the English language, there has been little research about this skill. This experimental research describes listening techniques to improve students’ listening comprehension. The targeted population consisted of university students in pre-intermediate level in a university in Ecuador. Students with poor listening skills were detected in the pre-test and teacher observation. Likewise, the background of the study showed that the lack of listening teaching and meagre listening habits were the cause of diminishing listening skills. The treatment was given to 15 students (the experimental group). It consisted of listening techniques based on methodology (note-taking, dictogloss, and dictation) and listening activities based on assessment (matching, multiple matching, sentence completion exercises). Data was gathered by means of questionnaires, interviews, the pre-test and the post-test. Finally, post intervention data demonstrated the experimental group students’ listening progress. On the whole, the results showed that the treated group increased their listening skills due to the listening techniques applied.

Biografía del autor/a

María Augusta Heredia, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE

Quito, Ecuador

Citas

Anderson, A. & Lynch, T. (1988). Listening. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Asher, J. (2003). Learning Another Language Through Actions. 6th Edition, Sky Oaks Productions, Inc. Asher J. (1997). Language by Command. The Total Physical Response Approach to Learning Language, in “The Way Of Learning” (IC#6) by Context Institute. Asher J. (1996). Learning Another Language Through Actions: The Complete Teacher’s Guidebook. (5th edn.) Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks Productions. Bloom, L. (1970). Language Development: format and Function in Emerging Grammar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Bone, D. (1988). A Practical Guide to Effective Listening. London: Kogan Page. Brown, G. & Yule G. (1983). Teaching the Spoken Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brown, R. A. (1973). A First Language: The Early Stages. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press. Brown, D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Addison Wesley Longman: New York. Brown, H. D. (2004) Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practices. White Plains, New York: Pearson Education. Cambridge Key English Test 3, (2006). KET Examination Papers from University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Cambridge Key English Test 3, teachers book (2006). KET Examination Papers from University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Carroll, D. W. (1999). Psychology of Language, Third Edition. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Chomsky, N. (1968). Language and Mind. New York: Harcourt Press. Chomsky, N. (1959). Review of “Verbal Behavior”. Language 35,26-58. Coleman, A. (1929). The Teaching of Modern Foreign Languages in the United States: A Report Prepared for the Modern Language Study. New York: Macmillan. Curran, Charles A. (1972). Counseling-learning: A Whole Person Model for Education. New York: Grune and Stratton. Dobson, J. (1985) Effective Techniques for English Conversation Groups. Washington, D.C.: Gutiérrez, A. (1992). Curso de Elaboración de Tesis y Actividades Académicas. Ecuador: Ediciones Serie Didáctica A.G. Dunkel, P. (1986). “Developing Listening Fluency in L2: Theoretical Principles and Pedagogical Considerations”. Modern Language Journal, 70:99-106. Dunkel, P. (1991). Listening in the Native and Second/Foreign Language: Toward an Integration of Research and Practice. TESOL Quarterly 25:431-457.

Ellis, Rod. (1997). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press. Feyten, C. M. (1991). The Power of Listening Ability: An Overlooked Dimension in Language Acquisition. The Modern Language Journal 75:173-80. Gary, J. O. (1975). Delayed oral practice in initial stages of second language learning. New Directions in second language learning, teaching and bilingual education, ed. by M. Burt and H, Dulay 89-95. Washington D.C.: TESOL. Gattegno, C. (1972). Teaching Foreign Languages in Schools: The Silent Way. Second Edition. New York: Educational Solutions. Hopkins, Kenneth D., Hopkins, B. R. and Glass, Gene V. (1997) Estadistica Básica para las Ciencias Sociales y del Comportamiento. Mexico: Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, S.A. Howatt, A. and J Dakin. (1974). Language laboratory materials, ed. J. P. B. Allen, S. P. B. Allen, and S. P. Corder. Hymes, D. (1971 [1972,1979]). On Communicative Competence. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Long, M. H. (1983). “Native Speaker/Non-Native Speaker Conversation and the Negotiation of Comprehensible Input” Applied Linguistics: 126-41. Lozanov G. (1979). Suggestology and Outlines of Suggestopedy. New York: Gordon and Breach. Lynch, T. (1996) “The listening-speaking connection”. English Teaching Professional 1. McLaughlin, B. (1987). Theories of Second Language Learning. London: Edward Arnold. Krashen, S. (1985). The input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. Harlow: Longman Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon. Krashen, S. & Terrell, T. (1983). The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in the Classroom. Hayward: The Alemany Press. Larsen-Freeman, Diane. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press. Larsen-Freeman, Diane. (1986). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press. Mangubhai, F. (2002). Methodology in Teaching a Second Language-Study Book. University of Southern Queensland: Toowoomba. Murphey, Tim. (1992). Music & song. Resource books for teachers, Series editor Alan Maley. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. Noll, M. (1988). “The Class has Finished but the Melody Lingers on”. English Teachers’ Association, Switzerland, Newsletter 5:3:18-9. Nunan, D. (2002). Research Methods in Language Learning. United States of America: Cambridge University Press.

Nunan, D. (1989a: 97). Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. O’Malley & Chamot, (1990). Listening: theory and practice in modern foreign language competence htpp://www.lang.ltsn.ac.uk/resources/ref6#ref6. Porter, D. & Roberts, J. (1987). Authentic Listening Activities. In Long, H. Reeve, C. & Williamson, J. (1987). “Look what they’ve done to my song”. Modern English Teacher 14:4:33-6. Richards, J. (2008). Teaching Listening and Speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richards, J., Platt, J. & Platt, H. (1992, p.216). Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. (second edition). London: Longman. Richards, J. & Rogers, T. (1986). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Richards, Jack C. (1983). Listening Comprehension, TESOL Quarterly. Ronald, K. and Roskelly, H. (1985). “Listening as an act of composing”. Paper presented at the 36th Conference on College Composition and Communication. Rost, M. (2002). Teaching and Researching Listening. London, UK: Longman. Rost, M. (1994). Introducing Listening. London: Penguin. Rost, M. (1991). Listening in Action. Prentice Hall. Rost, M. (1990). Listening in Language Learning. London and New York: Longman. Rost, M. (1990). Listening in Language Learning. London: Logman. Postovsky, Valerian A. (1974). Effects of delay in oral practice at the beginning of second language learning. Modern Language Journal 58.229-39. The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, (2001). Ed. Ronald Carter and David Nunan. Cambridge: CUP. Underwood, M. (1989). Teaching Listening. London: Longman. Ur, Penny. (1984). Teaching Listening Comprehension. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ur, Penny. (1987). Teaching Listening Comprehension. Great Britain: The Bath Press, Avon. Vandergrift, L. (1996). The listening comprehension strategies of core French high school students. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 52,200-223. Vandergrift, L. (1997a). Listening: theory and practice in modern foreign language competence htpp:// www.lang.ltsn.ac.uk/resources/ref6#ref6. Vandergrift, L. (2002). “It was nice to see that our predictions were right”: Developing Metacognition in L2 Listening Comprehension. Canadian Modern Language Review 58:555-75. White, Goodith. (1998). Listening. Resource books for teachers, Series editor Alan Maley. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wilkings, D. (1976). Notional Syllabuses. London: Oxford University Press. Wilt, Miriam E. “A study of teacher awareness of listening as a factor in elementary education,” Journal of Educational Research, 43 (8), April 1950, pp 626-636. Winitz, H. & Reeds, J. A. (1973). Rapid acquisition of a foreign language (German) by the avoidance of speaking. International Review of Applied Linguistics 11.4.295-317. Wipf, J. (1984). Strategies for Teaching Second Language Listening Comprehension. Foreign Language Annals 17:345-48.

Publicado
2018-10-03