Cerámicas: una actualización

  • Marcelo Cascante Calderón
  • Inés Villacís Altamirano
  • Igor Studart Medeiros
Palabras clave: Porcelana Dental, Cerámica, Restauraciones de Cerámica, Silicatos de Alumínio, Circonio, Vita Enamic

Resumen

Las cerámicas dentales utilizadas para restaurar y reemplazar tejido dental perdido de los dientes o las piezas dentales mismas, han sufrido una enorme transformación desde que aparecieron las primeras porcelanas hace ya varias décadas. Con las feldespáticas se podían hacer dientes, coronas y puentes pero, necesitaban un soporte de metal para que no sufran fracturas con los esfuerzos masticatorios, y por ello no tenían una apariencia vital. Hoy en día, han aparecido muchas otras cerámicas con diferentes y mejoradas características mecánicas y ópticas, lo que ha permitido que los odontólogos puedan por primera vez ofrecer a sus pacientes dientes artificiales con sorprendente naturalidad. Objetivo: Describir la clasificación actual, las características mecánicas y ópticas, así como la microestructura y los usos clínicos de las diferentes cerámicas dentales utilizadas hoy en día. Materiales y métodos: Revisión de la literatura acerca del tema, en tres de los más importantes buscadores de internet (Pubmed,Cochrane,Web of Science). Limitando su busca a artículos en inglés y publicados en los journals de investigación de materiales dentales con calificación Q1 y Q2. Resultados: Se revisaron 69 artículos publicados entre 1975 y 2019 los cuales aportaron una fuente interesante de información que permitió desarrollar el conocimiento acerca de la clasificación, microestructura, propiedades mecánicas y ópticas, usos clínicos y forma de procesamiento de las cerámicas. Conclusiones: Actualmente los odontólogos tienen a disposición una amplia variedad de materiales cerámicos con diferentes composiciones y características únicas que son necesarias conocer al momento de escoger la cerámica específica para cada necesidad de los pacientes.

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Biografía del autor/a

Marcelo Cascante Calderón

Postgraduate PhD Program of Biomaterials and Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Escuela de Odontología, Universidad Central del Ecuador

Inés Villacís Altamirano

Postgraduate PhD Program of Biomaterials and Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Escuela de Odontología, Universidad Central del Ecuador

Igor Studart Medeiros

Department of Biomaterials and Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil

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Publicado
2019-12-31
Cómo citar
Cascante Calderón, M., Villacís Altamirano, I., & Studart Medeiros, I. (2019). Cerámicas: una actualización. Revista Odontología, 21(2), 86-113. https://doi.org/10.29166/odontologia.vol21.n2.2019-86-113
Sección
Revisión Bibliográfica