Clinical issues in orofacial clefts in Ecuadorian children
Background: Orofacial clefts are one of the most common human malformations worldwide and comprise cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and cleft lip with cleft palate (CLP) phenotypes.
Objective: To analyze the clinical features and genetics in Ecuadorian children patients with orofacial clefts.
Design: Observational, cross-sectional, cases series study.
Subjects and Setting: It analyzed 475 children patients of less of 5 years presenting orofacial clefts. The data arose of public hospitals from the 22 provinces around the country.
Interventions: It designed a survey to gather information from inpatient records of the hospitals. Data was collected during a six month period in 2010.
Results: Male cases were 64.8%, the ratio male:female was 1.84:1. Children of less of 1 year comprise the 21.7% (103/475) of cases and, 80.2% of the cases (381/475) were Mestizos. CL phenotypes were the most common orofacial cleft, alone in 42.7% (203/475) or in association with CP in 19.2% of cases (91/475). CP alone was 38.1% of cases (181/475). Unilateral CL was present in 38.4% of cases (78/203), the left side was the most affected in 64.1% (50/78); the ratio left to right side was 1.78:1. There was a correlation between orofacial clefts and multiple gestations above 4 gestations, low maternal age below 15 years, high paternal age above 45 years, intrauterine growth retardation, positive use of anticonvulsivants and frequent maternal alcohol consumption.
Conclusion: In Ecuadorian Mestizo children affected by orofacial clefts, unilateral, incomplete, CL of the left side was the most frequent finding followed by cleft hard palate with cleft soft palate. Further evaluation is needed to understand more widely the multifactorial etiology of this problem.
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