Impacto de los principales problemas de salud bucal en la calidad de vida de preescolares

Autores/as

  • Gustavo Tello PhD en Odontopediatría por la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de São Paulo – Brasil (FOUSP). Profesor-investigador coordinador de investigación del Instituto de posgrado de la Fa-cultad de Odontología de la Universidad Central del Ecuador
  • Jenny Abanto Post-Doctora por la FOUSP. Profesora del Curso de Especialización en Odontopediatría de la FAPES y del Curso de Actualización en Odontopediatría en la Primera Infancia de la FUNDEC-TO-USP
  • Luciana Butini Oliveira Post-Doctora en Odontopediatría por la FOUSP. Profesora de los cursos de Pregrado y Postgrado de la Facultad Odontología São Leopoldo Mandic, Campinas
  • Christiana Murakami Sato PhD en Odontopediatría por la FOUSP. Profesora del Curso de Especialización en Odontopedia-tría de la FAPES y del Curso de Actualización en Odontopediatría en la Primera Infancia de la FUNDECTO-USP
  • Gabriela Bonini PhD en Odontopediatría por la FOUSP. Profesora del Departamento de Odontología Pediátrica de la Facultad de Odontología São Leopoldo Mandic, Campinas
  • Marcelo Bönecker Profesor Titular de la Disciplina de Odontopediatría de la FOUSP

Palabras clave:

Odontología pediátrica, niño, caries dental, traumatismos dentales, erosión dental

Resumen

Los principales problemas de salud bucal que afectan a los niños menores de 5 años de edad son la Caries Dental (CD) Traumatismo Dentario (TD) e recientemente el Desgaste Dentario Erosivo (DDEr). Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de la prevalencia y severidad de CD, TD y DDEr en la Calidad de Vida Relacionada a la Salud Bucal (CVRSB) de preescolares y de sus padres/cuidadores, asociadas con variables sociodemográficas. Materiales y Métodos: Fueron seleccionados sistemáticamente 617 niños de 3 y 4 años de edad durante la Campaña Nacional de Vacunación Infantil del Municipio de Diadema, São Paulo-Brasil. Los padres y/o cuidadores respondieron el cuestionario de la versión brasileña de calidad de vida (B-ECOHIS) y datos sociodemográficos relacionados al niño(a). Fue firmado el Consentimiento informado previo al examen clínico. Cirujanos Dentistas entrenados y calibrados realizaron los exámenes clínicos para CD, TD y DDEr. Para el análisis estadístico fue realizada la Regresión de Poisson con un intervalo de confianza de 95%. Resultados: Los valores de Kappa (Inter e intra-examinador) para todas las condiciones clínicas estudiadas fueron > 0.8. La prevalencia de CD, TD y DDEr del total de la muestra fue de 33.1%, 26.9% y 52.4% respectivamente. Fue observada una asociación del score total del B-ECOHIS con la edad del niño(a) (RP= 1.62 / p= 0.005), la presencia de CD (RP= 2.88 / p< 0.001) y la severidad de CD. Fue considerada como alta severidad cuando el niño(a) presentaba un ceo-d > 6 (RP= 4.76 / p< 0.001). La presencia y la severidad de TD y DDEr no mostraron un impacto negativo en la CVRSB de los preescolares. Conclusiones: La edad del niño, la presencia y severidad de la CD están asociadas con la peor CVRSB de preescolares y de sus padres/cuidadores. TD y DDEr no mostró impacto en la CVRSB. 

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Publicado

2018-11-13

Cómo citar

Tello, G., Abanto, J., Butini Oliveira, L., Murakami Sato, C., Bonini, G., & Bönecker, M. (2018). Impacto de los principales problemas de salud bucal en la calidad de vida de preescolares. Revista Odontología, 18(2), 42–52. Recuperado a partir de https://revistadigital.uce.edu.ec/index.php/odontologia/article/view/1336

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